Cholinesterase activity in the cup oyster Saccostrea sp. exposed to chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, cadmium and copper
Moncaleano-Niño, Angela M.
Gómez-Cubillos, Maria Camila
Ahrens, Michael J.
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In the present study, the sensitivity and concentration dependence of three functionally-defined components of cholinesterase activity (total: T-ChE; eserine-sensitive: Es-ChE; and eserine-resistant: Er-ChE) were quantified in the gill, digestive gland and adductor muscle of the tropical cup oyster Saccostrea sp., following acute (96 h) aqueous exposure to commercial formulations of the organophosphate (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos and the neonicotinoid (NN) imidacloprid (concentration range: 0.1–100 mg/L), as well as to dissolved cadmium and copper (concentration range: 1–1000 μg/L). Oysters (1.5–5.0 cm shell length), field-collected from a boating marina in Santa Marta, Colombia (Caribbean Sea) were exposed in the laboratory to each substance at five concentrations. T-ChE, Es-ChE, and Er-ChE activity were quantified in the three tissues in pools of 5 individuals (3 replicates per concentration), before and after inhibition with the total cholinesterase inhibitor eserine (physostigmine, 100 μM). Oysters exposed to chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid and Cd showed reduced T-ChE and Es- ChE activity in gills at highest exposure concentrations, with Es-ChE activity being inhibited proportionally more so than T-ChE, whereas Er-ChE activity showed no significant concentration-response. Digestive gland also showed diminished T-ChE, Es-ChE and Er-ChE activity for highest chlorpyrifos and Cd concentrations relative to controls, but an increase of T-ChE and Er-ChE activity at the highest imidacloprid concentration (100 mg/L). For Cu, T-ChE, Es-ChE and Er-ChE activities in gills and digestive gland were elevated relative to controls in oysters exposed to Cu concentrations>100 μg/L. In adductor muscle, T-ChE, Es-ChE and Er-ChE activity showed no apparent pattern for any of the four xenobiotics and concentration levels tested. Although this study confirms acute (96 h) concentration-dependent reduction of tissue T-ChE and Es-ChE activity in gills and digestive glands of Saccostrea sp. exposed to high concentrations of chlorpyrifos (100 mg/L), significant changes in T-ChE, Es-ChE and Er-ChE were also caused by exposure to Cd and Cu at concentrations>100 μg/L and by exposure to imidacloprid (100 mg/L), indicating that cholinesterase activity is not a specific biomarker of organophosphate exposure in this species, but, rather, a biomarker of diverse xenobiotic exposure.
Link to resourcehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.12.057
- Año 2018 
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