Prevention and treatment of COVID-19: focus on interferons, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and vaccine
Bakadia, Bianza Moise
Wajid Ullah, Muhammad
Boni, Biaou Ode
Qaed Ahmed, Abeer Ahmed
Mukole, Biampata Mutu
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The ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) has drawn the attention of researchers and clinicians from several disciplines and sectors who are trying to find durable solutions both at preventive and treatment levels. To date, there is no approved effective treatment or vaccine available to control the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The preliminary in vitro studies on viral infection models showed potential antiviral activities of type I and III interferons (IFNs), chloroquine (CQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and azithromycin (AZM); however, the clinical studies on COVID-19 patients treated with CQ/HCQ and AZM led to controversies in different regions due to their adverse side effects, as well as their combined treatment could prolong the QT interval. Interestingly, the treatment with type I IFNs showed encouraging results. Moreover, the different preliminary reports of COVID-19 candidate vaccines showcase promising results by inducing the production of a high level of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and specific T cell-mediated immune response in almost all participants. The present review aims to summarize and analyze the recent progress evidence concerning the use of IFNs, CQ/HCQ, and AZM for the treatment of COVID-19. The available data on immunization options to prevent the COVID-19 are also analyzed with the aim to present the promising options which could be investigated in future for sustainable control of the pandemic.
Link to resourcehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111008
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