Education and philanthropy in the Middle East and North Africa
Ridge, Natasha Y.
Bruce, Elizabeth R.
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In North America and Europe, philanthropic foundations established by individuals, families and corporations have been operating in the education sector for over one hundred years (Arnove, 1984; Berman, 1983; Eikenberry & Nickel, 2006; Zunz, 2014). Globally, however, the last two decades have seen a significant increase in the level of involvement of philanthropic organisations in the education sector in most regions of the world, including the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) (Srivastava & Oh, 2010; Zunz, 2014). The growth in giving in the MENA region appears to have been driven by two key factors: first, a strong religious or cultural imperative to give back (Farouky, 2016; Ibrahim, 2008) and second, growing levels of personal and state wealth across the MENA region that have created a greater capacity for philanthropic giving (Knight & Ribeiro, 2017).
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