Oral cancer diagnosis and perspectives in India
Konwar, Aditya Narayan
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Globally, oral cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer with India contributing to almost one-third of the total burden and the second country having the highest number of oral cancer cases. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) dominates all the oral cancer cases with potentially malignant disorders, which is also recognized as a detectable pre-clinical phase of oral cancer. Tobacco consumption including smokeless tobacco, betel-quid chewing, excessive alcohol consumption, unhygienic oral condition, and sustained viral infections that include the human papillomavirus are some of the risk aspects for the incidence of oral cancer. Lack of knowledge, variations in exposure to the environment, and behavioral risk factors indicate a wide variation in the global incidence and increases the mortality rate. This review describes various risk factors related to the occurrence of oral cancer, the statistics of the distribution of oral cancer in India by various virtues, and the socio-economic positions. The various conventional diagnostic techniques used routinely for detection of the oral cancer are discussed along with advanced techniques. This review also focusses on the novel techniques developed by Indian researchers that have huge potential for application in oral cancer diagnosis.
Link to resourcehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.sintl.2020.100046
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