Mechanism of inflammatory response in associated comorbidities in COVID-19
Lucena, Maria Costa de
Silva Santos, Ariane Fernandes da
Lima, Brenda Regina de
Albuquerque Borborema, Maria Eduarda de
Azevêdo Silvaab, Jaqueline de
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Summary in foreign language
Background and aims The outbreak of the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causes a respiratory disease and individuals with pre-existing cardiometabolic disorders display worse prognosis through the infection course. The aim of this minireview is to present epidemiological data related to metabolic comorbidities in association with the SARS-CoV-2. Methods This is a narrative mini-review with Pubmed search until April 23, 2020 using the keywords COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, treatment of coronavirus and following terms: diabetes mellitus, obesity, arterial hypertension, ACE-inhibitors, cytokine storm, immune response and vitamin D. Results Studies indicate that obese individuals are more likely to develop infections, and that adipose tissue serves as a pathogen reservoir. In diabetic individuals higher rate of inflammatory processes is seen due to constant glucose recognition by C type lectin receptors. Hypertensive individuals, usually grouped with other conditions, are treated with drugs to reduce blood pressure mostly through ACEi and ARB, that leads to increased ACE2 expression, used by SARS-CoV-2 for human’s cell entry. Until now, the studies have shown that individuals with those conditions and affected by COVID-19 present an uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an unbalanced immune response, leading to the cytokine storm phenomenon. Vitamin D is highlighted as a potential therapeutic target, because in addition to acting on the immune system, it plays an important role in the control of cardiometabolic diseases. Conclusion Currently, since there is no proven and effective antiviral therapy for SARS-CoV-2, the efforts should focus on controlling inflammatory response and reduce the risks of associated complications.
Link to resourcehttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871402120301430?via%3Dihub#kwrds0010
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