Forecasting Brazilian and American COVID-19 cases based on artificial intelligence coupled with climatic exogenous variables
Gomes da Silva, Ramon
Dal Molin Ribeiro, Matheus Henrique
Mariani, Viviana Cocco
Santos Coelho, Leandro dos
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The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a public health problem once according to the World Health Organization up to June 24th, 2020, more than 9.1 million people were infected, and more than 470 thousand have died worldwide. In the current scenario, the Brazil and the United States of America present a high daily incidence of new cases and deaths. Therefore, it is important to forecast the number of new cases in a time window of one week, once this can help the public health system developing strategic planning to deals with the COVID-19. The application of the forecasting artificial intelligence (AI) models has the potential of deal with dynamical behavior of time-series like of COVID-19. In this paper, Bayesian regression neural network, cubist regression, k-nearest neighbors, quantile random forest, and support vector regression, are used stand-alone, and coupled with the recent pre-processing variational mode decomposition (VMD) employed to decompose the time series into several intrinsic mode functions. All AI techniques are evaluated in the task of time-series forecasting with one, three, and six-days-ahead the cumulative COVID-19 cases in five Brazilian and American states, with a high number of cases up to April 28th, 2020. Previous cumulative COVID-19 cases and exogenous variables as daily temperature and precipitation were employed as inputs for all forecasting models. The models’ effectiveness are evaluated based on the performance criteria. In general, the hybridization of VMD outperformed single forecasting models regarding the accuracy, specifically when the horizon is six-days-ahead, the hybrid VMD–single models achieved better accuracy in 70% of the cases. Regarding the exogenous variables, the importance ranking as predictor variables is, from the upper to the lower, past cases, temperature, and precipitation. Therefore, due to the efficiency of evaluated models to forecasting cumulative COVID-19 cases up to sixdays-ahead, the adopted models can be recommended as a promising models for forecasting and be used to assist in the development of public policies to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 outbreak.
Link to resourcehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2020.110027
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