Cyclophilin A and CD147: novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of COVID-19
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The outbreak of pneumonia caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in December 2019, and spread rapidly throughout the world. There have been other severe coronavirus outbreaks worldwide, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV). Because the genetic diversity of coronaviruses renders the design of vaccines complicated, broad spectrum-anti-coronavirus drugs have become a critical approach to control the coronavirus epidemic. Cyclophilin A is an important protein needed for coronavirus replication, and its inhibitor cyclosporine has the ability to suppress coronavirus on a broad spectrum. CD147-S protein was found to be one route by which SARS-CoV-2 invades host cells, while CD147 was found to play a functional role in facilitating the infection of host cells by SARS-CoV. The CyPA/CD147 interaction may play a critical role in the ability of the SARS-CoV-2 virus to enter the host cells. However, cyclosporine A has immunosuppressive effects, so the conditions for its use as an antiviral drug are limited. As a result, cyclosporine A analogues without immunosuppressive side effects have attracted lots of interest. This review primarily discusses the drug development prospects of cyclophilin A as a therapeutic target for the treatment of coronavirus infection, especially coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporine analogues.
Link to resourcehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100056
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