COVID-19: Loss of bridging between innate and adaptive immunity?
Rao, Vishal U.S
Suhail Sayeed, Mufti
Brennan, Peter A.
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is a threat to the health and well-being of millions of lives across the globe. The potential source for its widespread disruption is a global travel and close personal contact that has allowed the virus to propagate. The emergence, re-emergence, mutations spread and effects of and from animals of this mysterious and cryptic virus has become the focus of the media across the world. Researchers are working relentlessly to study the virus and its effects . The host inflammatory response and the cytokine storm-generated reflects its predominant attack on the lungs, heart, liver and kidney . The SARS-CoV2 is the pathogen causing COVID-19, a pandemic threatening millions of lives globally . While in most individuals SARS-CoV2 infections are unapparent or associated with mild to moderate symptoms, as many as 10–20% develop the severe or life-threatening disease . Surprisingly, the morbidity and mortality report of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) showed that compared to adults, children under 18 years of age are less likely to experience the typical symptoms of infection, including fever, cough and difficulty breathing, and are also less likely to need hospitalization and less likely to die of COVID-19 . The overall mortality rate observed was low, at about 0.18% compared to 4.3% in adults [4–6]. One possible explanation for the difference in the disease profiles is the repeated exposure to viral infections improves the children’s response to SARS CoV 2 infection [4,5]. It has also been suggested that children could get relative protection because they have immature angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors, which the SARS-CoV-2 protein appears to bind for pathogenic effects [4–6]. These unique characteristics could help find answers to its potential link to the immune system and in turn, an effective cure to the disease. It is noteworthy that the immune system of older patients resembles that of the new-born, with reduced antimicrobial activity by neutrophils and macrophages, reduced antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs), decreased natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, and compromised adaptive lymphocyte responses [7–9]. Furthermore, both the very young and old immune systems are similarly compromised in coping with a typical viral infection. Why then are children responding better? These unique characteristics may help find answers to its potential link to the immune system and in turn, an effective cure to the disease.
Link to resourcehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109861
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