Targeting adenosinergic pathway and adenosine A2A receptor signaling for the treatment of COVID-19: A hypothesis
Abouelkhair, Mohamed A.
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The most serious health issue today is the rapid outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). More than 6,973,427 confirmed cases were diagnosed in nearly 213 countries and territories around the world and two international conveyances, causing globally over 400,000 deaths. Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients have been identified, but the factors influencing the immune system against COVID-19 have not been well established. Upon infection or cell damage, high amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are released from damaged cells, which serve as mediators of inflammation through purinergic cell surface receptor signaling. As a protective mechanism to prevent excessive damage to host tissue, adenosine counteracts ATP's effects by adenosine receptor stimulation to suppress the pro-inflammatory response. Adenosine is seen as a major obstacle to the efficacy of immune therapies, and the adenosinergic axis components are critical therapeutic targets for cancer and microbial infections. Pharmacologic inhibitors or antibodies specific to adenosinergic pathway components or adenosine receptors in microbial and tumor therapy have shown efficacy in pre-clinical studies and are entering the clinical arena. In this review, we provide a novel hypothesis explaining the potential for improving the efficiency of innate and adaptive immune systems by targeting adenosinergic pathway components and adenosine A2A receptor signaling for the treatment of COVID-19.
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