The effects of allium sativum on immunity within the scope of COVID-19 infection
Donma, Mustafa Metin
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Summary in foreign language
The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) infection is quite variable and the manifestations varies from asymptomatic disease to severe acute respiratory infection. Fever, dry cough, dyspnea, myalgia, fatigue, loss of appetite, olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions are the most prevalent general symptoms. Decreased immune system cells such as suppressed regulatory T cells, cytotoxic and helper T cells, natural killer cells, monocytes/macrophages and increased proinflammatory cytokines are the characteristic features. Compounds derived from Allium sativum (garlic) have the potential to decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and to reverse the immunological abnormalities to more acceptable levels. Allium sativum is suggested as a beneficial preventive measure before being infected with SARS‐CoV‐2 virus. Allium sativum is a functional food well-known for its immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antimutagenic, antitumor properties. Its antiviral efficiency was also demonstrated. Some constituents of this plant were found to be active against protozoan parasites. Within this context, it appears to reverse most immune system dysfunctions observed in patients with COVID-19 infection. The relations among immune system parameters, leptin, leptin receptor, adenosin mono phosphate-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma have also been interpreted. Leptin’s role in boosting proinflammatory cytokines and in appetite decreasing suggest the possible beneficial effect of decreasing the concentration of this proinflammatory adipose tissue hormone in relieving some symptoms detected during COVID-19 infection. In conclusion, Allium sativum may be an acceptable preventive measure against COVID-19 infection to boost immune system cells and to repress the production and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines as well as an adipose tissue derived hormone leptin having the proinflammatory nature.
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