Outbreak of COVID-19: An emerging global pandemic threat
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Since the first outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Wuhan, Hubei, China in December 2019, it is now recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) as more than 200 countries and territories worldwide are affected with an increasing incidence. The SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a spectrum of non-specific signs and symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic infection, to flulike illness such as fever, cough, dry cough and fatigue, to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even multi-organ failures with high morbidity and mortality. SARS-CoV-2 is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets that infected people exhale during incubation and onset period. By 12 June 2020, over 7.5 million confirmed cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with more than 421,000 deaths in the world have been reported to the WHO. No specific medication is approved to treat COVID-19, raising the urgent need for antiviral drug development. By 12 June 2020, there are over 1000 clinical trials registered in clinicaltrials.gov for treatment of COVID-19. This review summarizes the epidemiology, virology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and particularly the antiviral drugs currently under clinical trials for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, together with the challenges and perspectives of this disease are also discussed.
Link to resourcehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110499
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