Molecular and biological characterization of native Bacillus thuringiensis strains for controlling tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Colombia
Fuentes, L. S.
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Twenty-eight soil samples were obtained from open fields and greenhouses used for tomato cultivation in various regions of Colombia. For functional characterization, 99 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated and characterized by abundance and morphology of microscopic crystals, SDS–PAGE of protein extracts and M-PCR analyses of genes of the cry1 family, as well as for their insecticidal activity against Tuta absoluta second instar larvae. Native Bt strains had amorphous (5%), bi-pyramidal (27%), square (8%), spherical (38%) and triangular (22%) crystal forms. Based on the presence of 1–4 different crystal forms, 18 different profiles were established. The SDS–PAGE analyses of protein extracts established ten different strain groups based on their protein band weight and potential biological activity. The M-PCR technique identified 35 native Bt strains based on the presence of the 6 genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B, cry1C and cry1D, whose frequency of occurrence was 76, 26, 21, 35, 32 and 8.8%, respectively. Thirteen different PCR profiles were found in native Bt strains. Several gene combinations tended to cooccur with elevated frequency, such as the pairs cry1Ac/ cry1C, cry1Ab/cry1Ac and cry1Ab/cry1B, for which Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.69, 0.52 and 0.54, respectively. Native strains ZBUJTL39 and ZCUJTL11 had up to three times higher biological activity against T. absoluta second instar larvae than the reference strain Bt var. kurstaki HD1, with an LD50 of 2.4 lg/ml (P\0.05) for native Bt strain ZCUJTL11. This study suggests a high biodiversity of native Bt strains from tomato growing regions in Colombia, which has important implications for designing biological control strategies for T. absoluta.
Link to resourcehttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11274-010-0493-5
- Año 2011 
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